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5 pages Double space APA

Focus on one theory

For examples: Ways of Knowing & Evaluating Theories, Symbolic Interactionism, Cognitive Dissonance, Uncertainty Reduction Theory, Expectancy Violations Theory, Communication Privacy Management Theory, Message Design Logics, Groupthink, Communication Accommodation Theory, Theory of Planned Behavior, Social Cognitive Theory, Cultivation Theory, Agenda Setting Theory, Spiral of Silence Theory, Uses & Gratifications Theory.

Read the article that I upload

and find at least 2 empirical studies.

Please read all requirements below carefully

and follow each step by step

  1. Identify, review, and apply a specific communication theory to the people, events, or issues that are involved in the news story.
  2. Describe how at least two empirical studies about that theory relate to your discussion.

Step 1

Brainstorm communication topics. You will utilize one theory to explain something that is going on in the news story. However, it’s likely the case that you don’t know many theories yet (at least, not by name). So, in order to find a theory, first read the news stories several times and think of any topics related to communication (in general) that you see. This could include various topics, such as conflict resolution, ingroup/outgroup interaction, media effects, agenda setting, nonverbal communication, technology and interpersonal relationships, selective attention to media, emotion, and persuasion. These are just a few of the many topics you might find

Step 2
Use the literature to help you find possible theories. There are several ways to find a good theory for this paper. You can look through the textbook and articles posted on GauchoSpace to see if any of the theories sound promising. But be careful not to just pick the first theory you see or limit yourself only to the theories from class—there are a lot more theories out there! Also, some of the theories in the textbook will not work well for this assignment. More recently-developed theories might be especially applicable to your paper.

Once you have some good topics/terms/concepts in mind, scour the research literature for empirical studies (as well as other sources) that focus on your topic of interest. You can search for a particular theory name if you already have a theory in mind (e.g., Social Cognitive Theory, Elaboration Likelihood Model), but again, this can be limiting, because the studies do not always mention the theory in their title or abstract. It often works better to type in phrases or terms that you’re focusing on (e.g., “media role models”). The one theory that you ultimately choose should inform/explain/address the news story in some way.

Step 3

Focus on one particular theory. The studies you find probably will discuss several different theories. Typically, theories are discussed in the first section of each article (i.e., the introduction or literature review). Sometimes researchers very clearly identify theory names (e.g., “using the framework of Social Identity Theory . . .”), while others allude to their use of theoretical principles (e.g., “research on social identity suggests that . . .”). So you may have to dig a little, consult the textbook, or do some additional research to see if you can figure out what theory the authors are using. But more importantly, you need to pick the one theory that you think has something valuable, insightful, or interesting to say about the issues, events or people involved in the news story.

Step 4
Choose at least two empirical research articles that use the same theory. Both studies must use the one theory you’re going to apply in your paper. These two sources must be empirical studies published in scholarly journals.

Note: An “empirical study” reports the results of actual research using data collected from surveys, experiments, content analysis or other types of methods. A good clue that an article is empirical is if you can find the Method section that reports the participants and/or forms of measurement as well as a Results section that reports the findings and data analysis. Remember that you will need to accurately summarize the articles in terms of theory and results. Make sure to carefully read and take notes on the articles.

You’re also strongly encouraged to find additional sources that could help you provide depth and richness to the points you make in your paper. Such additional sources might be other articles, book chapters, or textbooks that give you helpful information about the theory.

Follow this format


1. Introduction
Write a comprehensive introduction that informs the reader of the main ideas in the paper with a clear thesis statement and preview. Try to make your introduction both informative and engaging. Be sure to identify the communication issue/topic that arises from the people or events in the story and the theory that will help to explain it. It is possible that your introduction will require more than oneparagraph.

2. Application
Apply one theory to something important that is going on with the events and/or people in the news story. In addition, briefly describe the theory itself. To do this, you’ll need to draw upon the textbook and additional sources you find. Discuss how this theory and its terms/concepts would explain or apply to the events in the story. Be as specific, thorough, and thoughtful as possible. How does this theory provide a new understanding of these events, people, or behaviors? What aspects of the events or behaviors does the theory explain well, and why? In what ways might the theory fall short in helping to understand these events/behaviors? Be sure to support your arguments. Draw upon your research sources wherever appropriate.

3. Review
Review how researchers have used the theory in at least two empirical studies. For each study, explain how researchers used the theory to inform their study. For example, did the researchers test a particular aspect of the theory? Was the study an application of some of the theory’s concepts under new conditions or with different participant populations? Was the theory used merely to help the researchers define variables? Briefly summarize each study (e.g., what they did, what they found, etc.) and describe any major results that relate to the theory. How do the studies relate to your discussion of your news story?

4. Connect
Tie together the different parts of your paper. This is NOT just a conclusion paragraph (although of course you need one of those, too). You need to make connections between your application of theory to the news story and the empirical research you found. Some tying together should be done “as you go along” in the paper (e.g., to provide good transitions between issues or to note an interesting connection between a finding and something you said earlier), but you will also need to draw some larger conclusions and insights about the different issues you’ve raised. How does your use of the theory to explain the news article fit together with or differ from the researchers’ use of the theory? What should we now think about this theory in light of your analysis of the news story and the research?

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