organization development and change, management homework help

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I. The Organizational Context

a. Using the PESTLE model, what is the
context in which the organization finds itself?

b. What are the internal issues the
organization is dealing with?

c. NOTE: Select the diagnostic model you
will use (e.g., McKinsey 7-S, Weisbord Six-Box, or any other approved by me)
and using the model, explain the internal issues as they would fit the model.
For example, one of the “Ss” for the McKinsey 7-S model is “structure.” If the
internal issue is that the wrong organizational structure exists due to a
change in organizational strategy, then note it that way.

II. The Management Problem (Use the
diagnostic model you selected)

Think of this like a doctor
diagnosing illness. Or think of it as a Gap Analysis.

a. What symptoms do you observe that
suggest something is wrong (e.g., too many errors on forms, turnover is too
high, etc.) versus what you should be seeing.

b. What could be causing each symptom.
Identify the causes (and why they are the causes). Find research that suggests
what can cause the symptoms, what happens if not addressed (e.g., Turnover can
come from low job satisfaction, and turnover costs an organization $X a year).
This can be from academic journals, and can also come from periodicals such as
trade publications,BusinessWeek(or similar periodicals), newspapers
(especiallyThe Wall Street
). The lit review focuses on the management question/problem and
provides a framework for why solutions are important to resolve it, and why
ignoring it is not an option.

c. What needs to change (*note—there may
be many issues, but focus on the ones you are most familiar with, or view as
most important). By this, given the symptoms, given the causes, what exactly
would you change to “fix” the causes (not the symptoms—the causes).

  i. These are your alternative
recommendations. One option is always to do nothing—to leave things as they
are. As you develop alternative recommendations, one certain ones will be
feasible to do (maybe they are affordable, maybe they are necessary because
time is short and they are easier to implement and provide a quicker
solution—or maybe because they have the highest long term payoff). As the
change leader you need to develop recommendations or solutions. Again, these
are the “fixes” for your problem causes. The selected recommendation/solutions
will be what you implement.

III. The Change Initiative (Use the Kotter
8-Step model; however, you can select another implementation model with my
approval. As you work through the implementation, use the Armenakis-Harris-Feild
model to show what the change leader (you) would do to create readiness for the
change (see item III-v below).

a. What is the plan for implementing the
change(s) you believe is/are needed? What exactly are you going to implement?
Be specific. Provide a step-by-step plan.  Specifically note:

  i. What will your change be (drawn from
the developed recommendations/solutions)?

  ii. What major challenges will you/the
organization face in implementing the proposed changes?

  iii. Who are the stakeholders in this case
who can have an impact, for good or ill on the change initiative? What
influence can they wield?

  iv. What types of resistance are you/the
organization likely to encounter? How will you address each type of resistance?

  v. Use the Armenakis, Harris, Feild
Institutionalizing Change Model. NOTE: Remember, this model is designed to look
at change from the change recipient’s perspective. Thus:

1. Consider the five elements of
readiness (discrepancy, appropriateness, principal support, efficacy, and
valence). This means you are explaining to the organizational members why the
change is needed, why the proposed change is appropriate (and, of course, what
it is), who is supporting the change (and if none initially, you need to build
a coalition—thus, one of the changes may be to get a guiding coalition
together), the support the organization will provide the members (this is the
efficacy element), and what the “pay-off” will be for both the organization and
the members (long term and short term—and note—if it involves pay cuts or
downsizing there may be pain for some and no positive pay-off).

b. A literature review of why this change
initiative is the best alternative (here is where many, if not all of your
references may show up).

IV. Evaluation

a. What are the specific outcomes you
seek? For example, a reduction in Turnover (The outcomes actually will be that
the symptoms you recorded cease to be. Don’t include outcomes like “a
‘motivated’ workforce’ or ‘better community relations.’ If you can’t quantify
it, don’t say it.

b. What will you do to evaluate the
results of the implementation? For example, use of surveys, quality control
measures, recorded cost savings, etc.

V. Conclusions

a. Final thoughts, etc.

VI. Reference page:

a. NOTE: You are required to use a
minimum offive peer-reviewed
articles/papers in
support of your analysis and plan development. Beyond that you can draw from
any source (except WIKIPEDIA) to support your analysis and plan.

b. NOTE: You should be using outside
sources to bolster your case for change, support for the type of change, etc.
so you should (a) be citing these sources within the body of the change
analysis and plan and (b) including a reference page at the end. NOTE: Both
citations and references should be done using APA guidelines. Just a
hint–don’t list the reference page with a “VI” or whatever. It should be on a
separate page. Center the word “References” and then include your references
below that. See the following resources for APA style guidelines:

  i. Publication Manual of the American
Psychological Association
ed.).  (2009). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

  ii. OWL Purdue Writing Center, click on
APA Guide at

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