4 3 discussion historical analysis

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This week you read about the women’s suffrage movement and the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), two major efforts to establish equal rights for women in the United States. In your discussion post, address the following:

  • Choose a sentence or short section from the article embedded in your webtext reading about the women’s suffrage movement. Quote the sentence or section in your post. Along with this sentence or section, briefly explain how your choice illustrates the concept of historical causality.
  • In one or two sentences, summarize the author’s thesis statement about the ERA. To support your answer, quote one or two sentences from the article that convey the author’s central point.

Respond to your peers by comparing one of their selections to your own. Reflect on the similarities and differences between the conclusions you each made based on the evidence you selected.

Please note that citations are not required when citing from the MindEdge resource.

To complete this assignment, review the Discussion Rubric document.

Exercise: Further Readings

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The following passage is from a scholarly journal article that looks at the strategic mistakes—which stemmed from a misunderstanding of the critical importance of Southern support during the amendment process—that led to the defeat of the Equal Rights Amendment. Read the passage and then answer the question following it, which relates to the author’s thesis statement.

The passage below is excerpted from “Historical Misunderstandings and the Defeat of the Equal Rights Amendment”, pages 51 to 54. Click on the title of the article to read, download, and print a copy of the text. These readings are provided by the Shapiro Library. This reading is required. You will have to log into Shapiro Library with your SNHU credentials to access this article.

“The Second Half of the Amendment V Process”

Congressional champions of ERA in the early 1970s simply did not expect problems securing state approval. Neither Senator Birch Bayh of Indiana nor Representative Martha Griffiths of Michigan, the measure’s principal congressional sponsors, anticipated any difficulty in winning ratification for the ERA. “Maybe some other folks thought of it,” Bayh later recalled, “I didn’t.”

…A prime reason for such inattention was a misreading of the history of constitutional amending. Here again ERA supporters focused on the limited data of recent experience rather than the much larger body of evidence available from taking a longer view. Since 1960, in addition to ERA, there had been no fewer than eight major efforts to amend the Constitution. Four amendments were added to the Constitution to deal with poll taxes, participation of the District of Columbia in presidential elections, presidential death or disability, and suffrage for 18 to 21 year olds. At the same time, other amendments failed that would have limited the power of the Supreme Court, overturned its rulings regarding legislative apportionment and school prayers, and provided direct popular election of the president. In every one of these cases, a notable struggle occurred in Congress. Four times when the battle was won, states quickly ratified the amendments, all in less than twenty months. In the other four instances, good reason existed to believe that states would have ratified if Congress had approved an amendment. Thus little attention was given to the second half of the Amendment V process [i.e., ratification by the state legislatures]. As a result neither congressional sponsors, supporters such as NOW, nor anyone else prepared to campaign vigorously for ERA ratification in the states.

…Following a century largely devoid of serious amending activity, save for the three Civil War amendments forced on the South, the twentieth century had already produced twenty substantial and often lengthy attempts at constitutional reform. The southern response had shaped the fate of these amendment efforts. Only one of the eleven former Confederate states had ratified the Twenty-third, or District of Columbia Presidential Voting Amendment, only two the Twenty-fourth or Anti-Poll Tax Amendment. Earlier all but three held out against the Nineteenth, or Woman Suffrage Amendment, and none ratified the Child Labor Amendment. Each of these amendments was achieved with difficulty or, in the case of the Child Labor Amendment, not attained at all. But when five of the southern states accepted the Seventeenth Amendment for direct election of senators, it had more easily won adoption. Moreover, throughout the twentieth century, amendments sailed through ratification when embraced by a majority of the southern states, as had been the case with every other amendment from the Sixteenth in 1913 authorizing the income tax to the Twenty-sixth in 1971 permitting eighteen-year-old suffrage. Furthermore, questionable amendment proposals, such as Representative Louis Ludlow’s war referendum plan of the late 1930s as well as budget balancing requirements and Senator John Bricker’s proposal to restrict presidential foreign policy authority in the early 1950s, gained serious attention in no small measure due to southern support. Every constitutional amendment proposal with southern backing had to be taken seriously; without such underpinning any amendment became problematic and required almost universal endorsement from non-southern states for adoption.

If you’re interested in reading more about the Equal Rights Amendment on your own, you might also be interested in these optional readings:

  • The Equal Rights Amendment, Public Opinion, & American Constitutionalism: An article that analyzes public-opinion polling results to assess the strength of public support for the ERA during the debate over ratification—and the place of the ERA in the history of the America constitution. You can read it at this link.
  • The Rights Revolution: An essay that looks at the fight over the ERA in the context of others “rights movements” in the 1970s, including the movements to expand the rights of gays and lesbians, and those of people with disabilities. This essay makes up a chapter in Something Happened: A Political and Cultural Overview of the Seventies, by Edward D. Horowitz. You can read it at this link.

I will need two responses done on classmates.

response 1 needed

Woman’s Suffrage

Corey Rollison posted Mar 23, 2020 1:34 PM

HIST Week 4 Discussion:

  • Choose a sentence or short section from the article embedded in your web text reading about the women’s suffrage movement. Quote the sentence or section in your post. Along with this sentence or section, briefly explain how your choice illustrates the concept of historical causality.

“Two women, Alva Belmont ($76,500) and Mary Burnham ($38,170), together gave 20 percent of the total amount, $561,800. The other large contributors gave approximately $213,000. Thus, fewer than sixty people represent nearly 60 percent of the funding.”

The socio-economic separation that occurs between not only the rich and the middle class/poor, also occur between the urban and rural areas. This factor alone accounts for many ancillary issues, such as political, religious, and social views. The fact that only women of wealth lead the different woman’s suffrage organizations made it hard to get the message out, and lead people of varying classes to realize the lack of representation for women in this country. Additionally, just because people from a large urban area such as New York believed a certain way; absolutely does not mean that people in rural areas agree with their views. The divide between rural and urban may never be resolved, the needs of one area differ greatly from the needs or attitudes of another.

  • In one or two sentences, summarize the author’s thesis statement about the ERA. To support your answer, quote one or two sentences from the article that convey the author’s central point.

Without a large war chest, the woman’s suffrage movement could not reach out and touch the vast audience they needed to in order to achieve their goal of equality. Money was needed to pay for signs, protests, and speakers.

“The power of the purse controlled the contours of the movement in many ways. When suffragists worked state-by-state, each state competed for financial assistance that the national organization granted, and donors, or the officers they funded, could direct money to the states of their choice. “

response 2 needed

Women’s Suffrage Discousion 4

James Samson posted Mar 24, 2020 4:06 PM

The section I chose is “Burned by her experience with Phillips, Anthony wanted wealthy women to prioritize giving to the movement. Suffragists understood that they could not depend on men; it would take the financial support of women to make change for women.” I think this shows historical causality because there was a lot at stake by making this statement. There would be less financial support from men and at the time there wasn’t an abundant of wealthy women. I think this also reflects a lot on the upper class of women as they had more education and available funds to support the cause.

I think the thesis of this article is staffing the events along with producing enough money to support the cause. “Staffing, one of the two major expenses identified by Stanton and Anthony, remained paramount until the vote was won in 1920.” They needed to get their message out and bring in more followers and believers to go from state to state. The more believers you had who gave a little would go a long way than just a couple of rich believers.

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