Compare and contrast process centered methodologies with data centered methodologies. Book Information
Dennis, A., Wixom, B. H., & Tegarden, D. (2012). System analysis design uml version 2.0. (5th ed.). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
ISBN: 9781118804674 Lecture
Systems Development Life Cycle “SDLC
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The Systems Development Life Cycle “SDLC” has a set of four fundamental phases: planning, analysis, design, and implementation. Different projects may emphasize different parts of the SDLC or approach the SDLC phases in different ways, but all projects have elements of these four phases.
Each phase is itself composed of a series of steps, which rely upon techniques that produce deliverables (specific documents and files that provide understanding about the project).
Example: When you apply for admission to a university, there are several phases that all students go through: information gathering, applying, and accepting. Each of these phases has steps—information gathering includes steps like searching for schools, requesting information, and reading brochures. Students then use techniques (e.g., Internet searching) that can be applied to steps (e.g., requesting information) to create deliverables (e.g., evaluations of different aspects of universities).
Major phases in the systems development life cycle (SDLC).
There are four major phases in SDLC.
- Planning: The Planning phase is the fundamental process of understanding why an information system should be built and determining how the project team will go about building it.
- Analysis: The Analysis phase answers the questions of who will use the system, what the system will do, and where and when it will be used. During this phase, the project team investigates any current system(s), identifies improvement opportunities, and develops a concept for the new system.
- Design: The design phase decides how the system will operate, in terms of the hardware, software, and network infrastructure; the user interface, forms and reports; and the specific programs, databases, and files that will be needed.
- Implementation: The final phase in the SDLC is the implementation phase, during which the system is actually built (or purchased, in the case of a packaged software design). This is the phase that usually gets the most attention, because for most systems it is longest and most expensive single part of the development process.
Examples of business needs for a system.
- Maintain or improve the competitive position
- Perform a business function more efficiently
- Take advantage of a new business opportunity
Purposes of the system request and the feasibility analysis
The purpose of the system request is to initiate a systems project. A system request is a document that describes the business reasons for building a system and the value that the system is expected to provide.
The project sponsor usually completes this form as part of a formal system project selection process within the organization. Most system requests include five elements: project sponsor, business need, business requirements, business value, and special issues
The feasibility analysis represents a more detailed investigation into the proposed system outlined in the system request. Feasibility analysis guides the organization in determining whether to proceed with a project. Feasibility analysis also identifies the important risks associated with the project that must be addressed if the project is approved.
The system analyst and the project sponsor work together to more fully develop the objectives of the system and to understand its potential costs and benefits to the organization.
The system request and the feasibility analysis are the key inputs used by the approval committee in determining if the proposed system has enough merit to move into the Analysis Phase.