1. Give a reason why a data center might be interested in virtualization.
2. Give a reason why a company might be interested in running a hypervisor on a ma- chine that has been in use for a while.
3. Give a reason why a software developer might use virtualization on a desktop machine being used for development.
4. Give a reason why an individual at home might be interested in virtualization.
5. What is the difference between full virtualization and paravirtualization? Which do you think is harder to do? Explain your answer.
6. Briefly explain the concept of process-level virtualization.
7. Give one case where a translated code can be faster than the original code, in a system using binary translation.
8. Explain the concept of shadow page tables, as used in memory virtualization.
9. Give one advantage of cloud computing over running your programs locally. Give one disadvantage as well.
10.Can the USENET newsgroup system or the SETI@home project be considered distrib- uted systems? (SETI@home uses several million idle personal computers to analyze radio telescope data to search for extraterrestrial intelligence.) If so, how do they relate to the categories described in Fig. 8-1?
11.What happens if three CPUs in a multiprocessor attempt to access exactly the same word of memory at exactly the same instant?
12.If a CPU issues one memory request every instruction and the computer runs at 200 MIPS, about how many CPUs will it take to saturate a 400-MHz bus?
13.Suppose that the wire between switch 2A and switch 3B in the omega network of Fig. 8-5 breaks. Who is cut off from whom?
14.Multicore CPUs are beginning to appear in conventional desktop machines and laptop computers. Desktops with tens or hundreds of cores are not far off. One possible way to harness this power is to parallelize standard desktop applications such as the word processor or the web browser. Another possible way to harness the power is to paral- lelize the services offered by the operating system — e.g., TCP processing — and com- monly-used library services — e.g., secure http library functions). Which approach ap- pears the most promising? Why?
15.For each of the topologies of Fig. 8-16, what is the diameter of the interconnection net- work? Count all hops (host-router and router-router) equally for this problem.